types of appraisals

180-degree appraisal

Also known as upward feedback, 180-degree appraisals incorporate the views of the appraisee and the appraiser.

360-degree appraisal

Also known as peer review or multi-source feedback, this involves collecting feedback on the appraisee’s performance from a number of involved stakeholders, such as fellow team members, subordinates and internal customers affected by the performance of the individual concerned.

A 360-degree appraisal can increase the appraised person’s self- awareness and involve others in leadership and development issues. However, research has indicated that the feedback becomes less accurate when any of the appraisers know the appraisee for less than one year (or more than five), and can also be affected by interpersonal issues.

Typical aspects that might form the basis of questionnaires sent to others to rate the appraisee are:

  • leadership
  • teamwork/management
  • self-management
  • communication
  • vision
  • organisational skills
  • decision-making
  • drive
  • adaptability

Sometimes feedback is anonymous, but not always. The benefits of a 360-degree appraisal, if sensitively and properly constructed, are roughly the same as any frank and constructive appraisal, but the system may provide the person appraised with additional insight into their strengths and potential areas of development. Training programs, both for those operating the system and those receiving feedback, are essential if the 360-degree process is to be of the most benefit. These should seek to address difficulties arising from biased perceptions of appraisees and, occasionally, the honesty or integrity of subordinate feedback.

team appraisal

Organisational teams whose members share specific goals and objectives, such as sales or project management teams, may be appraised together on how their team functions, instead of the performances of the individuals within them. Team appraisals may reveal problems, such as a lack of trust and confidence within the team, poor relationships between team members or confusion over roles and responsibilities, which can then be addressed through management development programs.


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